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A heart attack is a myocardial infarction (or MI) that suddenly blocks the blood supply to the heart. It is usually caused by a blood clot that deprives the heart of required oxygen and blood flow. It is a severe medical emergency that can be life-threatening, as it may damage the heart muscle.

Shalby Hospitals offers world-class cardiac care to patients suffering from heart attack or heart blockage. We offer comprehensive Heartcare treatment at competitive prices. Shalby houses state- of- the –art Cardiac care facilities for treating any cardiac condition. Full time Cardiologists, Cardiac Surgeons and Cardiothoracic Surgeons (CTVS), supported by 24 x 7 emergency services, make this centre one of the best in the country for heart attack and blockage treatments, with the help of latest innovations and technology in medical electronics, meeting global standards.

Procedures:

  • Interventional Cardiology
  • Coronary Angiography
  • Coronary Angioplasty including PrimaryAngioplasty in Myocardial Infarction (PAMI)
  • Congenital Heart Disease Clinic
  • Heart Failure Clinic
  • Pacemaker, CRT & AICD implantation
  • Peripheral interventions (includes Renal, Carotid & Peripheral Interventional procedures like Device closures, balloon valvuloplasty, and embolization, etc.)
  • EP Study & RF Ablation

Inside The Cath Lab:

  • Up to Date Modern Equipment matching Industry Standards
  • Siemens Flat Axiom Artis Catheterization laboratory
  • Siemens Acuson Echocardiogram Machine
  • Higher category post procedure holding beds, and standard posts procedure holding beds
  • Tread Mill Test Machine

Diagnostics Intervention

  • ECG(EKG)
  • Cardiac Catheterization Lab (Cathlab)
  • 2D Echo
  • TMT
  • TEE

Heart blockage is the disturbance occurring in the electrical impulses of the heart. Usually, a healthy human heart can beat for 60 to 100 times per minute, and heartbeat is one contraction of heart muscles to push blood around the body.

What is Heart Blockage?

Heart blockage, bundle branch block, or AV bundle block affects the electrical system of the heart. It is different from a heart attack, which affects the blood vessels of the heart.

In heart blockage, there is irregular heart beating that’s slower than usual, probably stopping for about 20 seconds at a time. It occurs due to delay or disruption along a pathway of electrical impulses that make a heartbeat. It could happen due to an injury to heart valves or heart muscle

Types of Heart Attack & blockage:

Heart attacks and blockages result from the following types of coronary artery conditions:

STEMI: A STEMI heart attack is life-threatening condition and needs immediate attention. Such heart attacks are the result of complete coronary artery blockage, which further stops the blood supply from reaching a large part of the heart. It may cause some progressive damage to the heart muscle and eventually may prevent the heart from functioning.

NSTEMI: The NSTEMI heart attacks are the result of partially blocked coronary artery and restricted blood flow to the heart. Although these are less risky compared to STEMI, they may permanently damage the heart muscles.

Coronary Artery Spasm: It is also called unstable angina or silent heart attack. It occurs when arteries linked to heart contracts and prevent or restrict blood supply to the heat. However, it does not cause permanent heart damage and considered less severe compared to other coronary conditions. One may even mistake coronary artery spasm for mere indigestion. But a coronary artery spasm may lead to the risk of getting a severe heart attack. So, it’s essential to consult a doctor immediately when an individual experiences severe pain in the chest.

Quintessence Attack causes:

One or more blocked coronary arteries cause a heart attack. Over time, when a coronary artery becomes narrow due to the build-up of different substances, such as cholesterol, it leads to coronary artery disease, which results in a heart attack.

When a person gets a heart attack, one of these plaques could rupture and enable cholesterol to mix into the bloodstream. Due to this, a blood clot forms at the site of a rupture. A large clot can even block blood flow through the coronary artery, making heart muscles deprived of necessary nutrients and oxygen supply.

One may experience a partial or complete blockage. A complete blockage means a person has the ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). On the other hand, a partial blockage indicates a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI).

Even coronary artery spasm is a common cause of heart attack, as it shuts the blood flow to the heart muscle completely. A person who consumes tobacco or drugs, such as cocaine, can suffer from this life-threatening spasm.

Heart Attack Symptoms and Warning Signs:


Following are the common symptoms and early warning signs of a heart attack:


Chest discomfort: Many people complain of chest discomfort in the center of their chest for more than a few minutes. This uncomfortable pain, squeezing, and tightness in the chest are a common symptom of a heart attack.

Discomfort in other upper body areas: Heart attack symptoms may even include pain or discomfort in the back, one or both arms, jaw, neck, or stomach.

Shortness of breath: An individual may or may not experience shortness of breath with chest discomfort.

Other warning signs include:

  • Nausea
  • Indigestion
  • Abdominal Pain
  • Heartburn
  • Cold sweat
  • Sudden Dizziness
  • Fatigue
  • Light-headedness

Heart attack symptoms vary:

All the people who have heart attacks may not experience the same symptoms or may experience similar severity of symptoms. Some may experience mild pain, whereas others may feel severe pain in the chest. Some people may even have no symptoms at all; however, for others, the very first sign could be an indication of severe cardiac arrest. The more the symptoms and signs one may experience, the higher are the chances of having a heart attack. The earliest warning sign may be the recurrent chest pain that is relieved by rest and triggered by exertion.

Diagnosis

The doctor will screen the patient during a physical examination to diagnose a heart attack. Following are the significant tests involved in diagnosing a heart attack:

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG): This test records the electrical activity of the patient’s heart through electrodes attached to their skin. The electrical impulses are recorded as waves shown on a monitor. The injured heart muscle won’t conduct electrical impulses, and this indicates a heart attack in progress or has already occurred.
  • Blood tests: After heart damage caused by a heart attack, some heart proteins leak into the bloodstream. So, doctors take blood samples to test the presence of these proteins in the patient’s blood.
  • Chest X-ray: A patient’s X-ray image of the chest enables the doctor to check the condition of the heart, blood vessels, and fluid present in the lungs.
  • Echocardiogram: In this test, sound waves are directed to the patient’s heart from a transducer device by holding it onto their chest to see a video image of the heart. An echocardiogram helps to determine whether the heart is damaged or not pumping regularly.
  • Coronary catheterization (angiogram): A catheter is used to inject liquid dye into the artery. This dye makes arteries visible on X-ray, showing any blocked areas

Medications:

  • Aspirin: It helps in reducing blood clots and maintains blood flow through an artery.
  • Thrombolytics: These drugs help to dissolve a blood clot blocking the blood supply to the heart.
  • Antiplatelet agents: These medications help in preventing new clots and removing the existing lumps from a larger area.
  • Beta-blockers help in limiting heart muscle damage and prevent future heart attacks.
  • ACE inhibitors help in lowering blood pressure and reducing heart stress

Book Your Appointment for Cardiac Care at: Centre of Excellence, Department of Cardiology,
Shalby Hospitals, India.

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